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Week8 Manga Lecture
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1. Slide 1: History of Manga Toba Sojō, “Animal Scroll” (鳥獣戯画) c.a. 12th century http://akituya.gooside.com/choujyu_allall.htm
2. Slide 2: Manga = 漫画 / マンガ / まんが • “Manga” coined by Katsushika Hokusai (1760 – 1849) • 漫 (man = whimsical) + 画 (ga = drawing) Katsushika Hokusai’s Ukyo-e, “Thirty-six views of Mr. Fuji”
3. Slide 3: Hokusai’s Ukiyo-e Woodblock Prints
4. Slide 4: Hokusai Manga
5. Slide 5: Tobae Around 1720, in Osaka, comical illustrated books were published (Tobae)
6. Slide 6: Charles Wirgman (1835-1891 ) • A British journalist sent to Japan in 1857 • Published The Japan Punch, an illustrated satirical magazine (1862 – 1887). • “Ponchi-e,” another name for manga
7. Slide 7: George Bigot (1860-1927 ) • Born in France; came to Japan to study Japanese fine art • Published Toba-e, a biweekly French-style humor magazine (1887-) 雑誌『トバエ』
8. Slide 8: From Meiji, Taishō, and Shōwa (1868- 1912) (1912- 1926) (1926 – ) • Kawanabe & Kanagaki, Eshinbun Nihonchi (1874) • Nomura Fumio, Marumaru- Chimbun (1877 - 1907) • By 1920, pre-war Japanese manga artists start publishing their works in Tokyo Puck 『絵新聞日本地』 『團團珍聞』
9. Slide 9: Marumaru- Chimbun (1877 - 1907)
10. Slide 10: From 1930s to the Defeat of Japan • Tagawa Suihō, Norakuro (1931 – 1941) • Hasegawa Machiko, Sazae-san (1946 - ) • Tezuka Osamu, Shin-Takarashima (1947)
11. Slide 11: What is Manga? 1. Manga is visual art / a medium, made of illustrations & text 2. Not only for kids but also for adults (Not limited to a small portion of population) Japan: manga as popular culture US: comics as “sub-”culture 3. A wide variety of genres (not limited to superheroes or science fiction) 4. A strong narrative  Fred Schodt’s says “visualized narrative” 5. Each manga magazine has each different target audience (age, gender, genre preference)
12. Slide 19: A Variety of Genres
13. Slide 20: Evolution of Manga
14. Slide 21: My Objectives Manga ≠ Japanese Comics Anime ≠ Japanese Cartoons  Remove what I call the “Disney filter” Q: How did the establishment in the Edo period consider Ukiyo-e (Japanese Woodblock Prints)? Q: How did Europeans (Impressionists) find Japanese Ukiyo-e paintings? Q: What is popular culture? Q: Who decides the “value” of art or popular culture?
15. Slide 22: Why Japan? 1. Pictocentric culture (image-centered culture) (Jigoku-e, Ukiyo-e, Kibyōshi, etc.) 2. Language and art (Pictogram and calligraphy tradition) 3. Low-budget art (Kamishibai [Picture card show] in Japan) + US military brought in many comics (postwar) 4. Less regulations  the US had a very strict regulation (Comic Authority Code) in the 1950s 5. Rich vocabulary of Onomatopoeia/Sound Symbols 6. Artistic creativity
16. Slide 23: Statistics on Manga
17. Slide 24: 2. Pictograms among Kanji 山( yama ) = mountain 川 (kawa) = river 目 (me) = eye 口 (kuchi) = mouth
18. Slide 25: Calligraphic Typos
19. Slide 26: Kamishibai [Picture-card Show] Late 1940s
20. Slide 27: Mizuki Shigeru (1923-) Former Kamishibai artist
21. Slide 28: \"Night Parade of One Hundred Demons“ (ca. 15th Century)
22. Slide 29: 3. Less regulation on Manga  American Comics Code Authority in 1954
23. Slide 30: A Common Question: “Why Japanese manga is so violent and graphic?”
24. Slide 31: 4. Rich Vocab. Of Onomatopoeia 1. Onomatopoeia – words imitate sounds 2. Phenomimes – words imitate external state or event (soundless) 3. Psychomimes – words imitate psychological state (soundless)
25. Slide 32: 2. Phenomimes – words imitate external state or event (soundless)
26. Slide 33: 3. Psychomimes – words imitate psychological state (soundless)
27. Slide 34: NHKTV 『英語でしゃべら NIGHT 』
28. Slide 35: Tezuka Osamu (1928 – 1989) “The God of Manga” - Born in Osaka in 1928 and grow up in Kobe - Influences of Max Flecher’s Betty Boop (before war) and Disney’s Bambi and Snow White cartoons - He was a medical student, but became a manga artist - Some rep. works: Astroboy, Kimba the White Lion [Jungle Emperor], Buddha, To Adolf, Buddha, Blackjack, etc.
29. Slide 36: Tezuka’s Innovations in Manga Media 1. Iconography: Not a realistic depiction but an abstract, simplified body and face  “iconic” rather than realistic depiction (119) 2. Cinematographic Influence  close-ups, shifting perspectives, visual images 3. Pioneer of “story manga” --- long narrative enough to be qualified as a novel 4. Tackling with darker side of human nature & desire (not just for laugh but for examining every aspect of what it means to be human (coming from his acute observation of human beings)
30. Slide 37: Iconography: Iconic depictions of characters’ faces and bodies Iconic Style Gekiga ( 劇画 ) Style \"dramatic pictures.\" Tezuka’s Astroboy Coined by Yoshihiro Tatsumi 『鉄腕アトム』 Serious  Whimsical
31. Slide 38: Tatsumi Yoshiro
32. Slide 39: Evolution of Manga
33. Slide 41: Use of Cinematic Techniques I [Tezuka] felt that existing comics were limiting·. Most were drawn as if seated in an audience viewing from a stage, where the actors emerge from the wings and interact. This made it impossible to create dramatic or psychological effects, so I began to use cinematic techniques·. French and German movies that I had seen as a schoolboy became my model. I experimented with close-ups and different angles, and instead of using only one frame for an action scene or the climax (as was customary), I made a point of depicting a movement or facial expression with many frames, even many pages. The result was a super-long comic that ran to 500, 600, even 1,000 pages. I also believed that comics were capable of more than just making people laugh. So in my themes I incorporated tears, grief, anger, and hate, and I created stories where the ending was not always happy. -- Osamu Tezuka from Frederik L. Schodt. Manga! Manga! (63)
34. Slide 42: Osamu Tezuka’s cinematographic layout Shin-Takarajima (1947) 『新宝島』
35. Slide 44: Subjective Perspectives
36. Slide 45: Tezuka – Disney Connection
37. Slide 46: Tezuka Osamu’s Jumping (1984) 6 min. - Won the Grand Prize at the 1984 Zagreb World Festival of Animated Films.
38. Slide 47: Osamu Tezuka’s Buddha (1974 – 1984) - Not as a tool for explaining Buddhist doctrine but presents Buddha’s story as a spiritual growth of a protagonist “Buildungsroman” or “Road Novel” - Presents Buddha not as a holy man or a god but as a human who suffers, challenges, and grows up - Make a Buddha younger (thereby, a Japanese young reader identify oneself with the protagonist  iconic depictions rather than realism - Mixture with Shintō (or other animistic folk religions) in Japan to explore a meaning of life (not a fundamental Buddhism) - Nature/Background as a symbol of the characters’ emotional and psychological state Objective correlatives
39. Slide 48: Buddha (Siddharta) in Agony
40. Slide 51: The Universe as a Living Thing
41. Slide 54: Religions in Japan - Two major religions in Japan are Buddhism and Shintō - Shintō is an animistic, folk religion; believing gods or spirits in natural and even inorganic objects - Syncretism – both religions co-exist; the total number of the believers of both is more than double of the Japanese population - Religions do NOT play a major role in everyday life; HOWEVER, religious ideas are enmeshed in people’s thinking, especially, about the view of life and death
42. Slide 55: Reading on Thursday • Murakami Haruki’s “TV People” • Initiate conducting research on your group topic/materials OPTIONAL Readings: • Jean Baudrillard’s “Simulacrum and Simulations” • Shimada Masahiko’s “Momotaro in a Capsule”
43. Slide 56: Manga Share of All Publication in 1995

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